Gears on the Brain

A couple of years ago I wrote about how failure is a learning opportunity. It is something I try to embrace as I learn new things and when I also fail to get things on the first go. Much like when I tried to fix the automatic mechanical pocket watch my partner got for me.

After it broke, she told me it was not all that expensive, which gave me the guilt-free pleasure of not only opening it up and poking around but also scratching a bucket list item off my list: learning about mechanical watches.

When the tools I had ordered arrived, I tore into the watch with delicate patience and glee. It was a marvel to take out the screws one by one, crown gear, balance wheel etc. I did my best to name and identify the parts, keeping them together as I had learned from various online videos.

The one thing I did not do was take pictures as I took the watch apart then cleaned the pieces. When it came time to put the whole thing back together I was left with a puzzle. It took me three days, but I was eventually able to piece it all back together between a combination of memory, logic and trial and error.

I was so excited to almost finish the project that I swapped in a right-hand screw for the left-hand screw that holds the crown gear. Then I lost the left-hand gear trying to put it in a right-hand threaded spot. I had sprung gears across the room several times during my tear down and put together, however this time I was not able to find it.

I eventually broke the right-hand screw out of the crown hear and decided to order a set of assorted screws for pocket watches. These came in a few months ago. I had been avoiding it in part because work was keeping me busy, but also I was still a little afraid of not being able to fix it.

With resigning from my work, I had some time between job hunting and writing to go get the screws and give it a go.  A couple of hours of tinkering and trying the various screws ended in me not getting any further ahead – none of them fit.

I am sad that I could not get the watch working again but am, as always, gleeful at the fun and learning I had during the process. Although I am not likely to get the watch fixed (a blog on repairing watches did warn me I was likely to break the first one I tried to fix) it has gotten my brain wondering about gears and gear ratios. I’m thinking I need to explore them further.

Stay tuned.

– KMSB

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Review of John Read’s 50 Things to See on the Moon

John Read sent me a copy of his latest book 50 Things to See on the Moon. I much enjoyed his last book, 50 things to See with a Telescope – KIDS and his new book does not disappoint.

Once again Read takes us through the basics of terminology and instruments that you need to observe the Moon. From there he walks through the 50 targets on the surface starting at the New Moon phase and picking out targets as the Moon’s shadow gives way to the growing lit surface of the Moon. By the time of the Full Moon, Read has walked us through his various targets.

Read supplies readers with views of his targets not only as seen with our eyes or binoculars, but also how the targets look when looking through different telescopes that can flip or rotate the image. This is something I have found useful when taking his book out under the Moon to explore.

Read also brings the Moon to life through interesting facts about how the craters or features got their names, how features were formed or about the many and various moon missions that have taken place. He also brings his wealth of experience and tricks and tips to make the experience fun and enjoyable. I have already found his approach of using a series of craters that form an L to remember that the L is for “landed” and points in the direction of the location of the Apollo 11 landing site.

Given that the book is again geared at new initiates to Moon gazing and likely a younger audience, there are at times technical terms or wording that is cumbersome, such as “Image of the same region on three subsequent nights.” instead of perhaps my personal choice of “Image of the same area over three nights.” This aside, the guide is accessible to both children and adults and makes for a great addition to any amateur astronomer’s library. I know I will be pulling it out again soon to go Moon gazing.

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The Darkest Black

Image of the black hole at the centre of M87 Image from: Akiyama, K., Alberdi, A., Alef, W., Asada, K., Azulay, R., Baczko, A.-K., … Ziurys, L. (2019). First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation. The Astrophysical Journal, 875(1), L2. http://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96

On April 10th The Event Horizon Telescope Collaborative released an image so exciting that I, like my parents with the Moon landing, will remember where I was and what I was doing when I saw it – which happened to be on my partner’s stationary bike in our garage watching the YouTube broadcast on my smartphone.

The image that popped up on the screen before me was a ring of orange hues, weighted and thicker towards the bottom left. A dark, gaping, empty, expanse of black sat inside the ring. I was looking at a black hole and the shadow its event horizon. The orange hues were ionized gasses dizzyingly swirling around it at speeds a fraction of the speed of light; sending out their blazingly hot swansong before crossing a frontier into an area of space so unknown we can only conjecture at what is behind the veil of the event horizon.

The light from that gas travelled incredible distances of time and space before reaching not our eyes, but a group of radio telescopes spanning the globe, interconnected through an ambitious and creative collaborate effort. The end result of which is nothing short of breathtaking.

Being so enthralled in the image, I missed a good portion of what the researchers announced about their findings so far. To get an idea, I turned to the five articles that were published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters and thumbed through them. Between the formulas, diagrams and interpretations, I quickly saw the incredible amount of collaboration and work that went into capturing and processing the images taken between April 4 and 11, 2017. Numerous radio telescopes across the Earth all had to simultaneously have good weather, the petabytes of data that had to be transferred, standardized, aligned and consolidated. New algorithms were created, faster data processing were invented and countless hours spent to produce an image of a dark region in space, the shadow of the black hole, at the centre of M87 that spans 19 to 38 microarcseconds!

If you are like me, you want to know how much that is in light years not arcseconds and you’re not worried about the margins of error. Let us have a little fun and work that out for ourselves. We’ll need a few things: the small angle formula, the distance to M87 and a calculator.

The small angle formula (SAF) is: arcseconds = 206,265(diameter of object/ distance to object)

The distance to M87 is about 53.5 million Light Years

Let us take the upper end of the measurement because who really wants a small shadow? 38 microarcseconds become … 3.8 x 10^-5 arcseconds.

We want the diameter of the shadow, that means we rewrite the SAF to become diameter of object = (distance to object x arcseconds)/206,265 then plug in the numbers.

diameter = (53,500,000 x 0.000,038)/206,265

We get around 0.01 light years which we can convert into km by multiplying by 9.5 x 10^12 … and voila! 9.5 x 10^10 km or 95 billion km! Not bad for a shadow.

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When Change isn’t Planned For

After several years of working in one career with the same employer, it was time for a change. I’ll be honest, I was not planning on making this change. Instead, I had failed to look after my own mental health and failed to keep a good work-life balance. The imbalance led to a slow, subtle slide back into my depression. This put a strain on relationships, friendships and work. With the help and support of my partner, I thought it best to resign and regroup.

Now having had some time to reflect and focus on my mental health, I am faced with the challenge of figuring out where to go next. STEAM communication is very much my passion, I just have to figure out how I can make that passion earn a little revenue.

I have a few ideas and leads. The first of course is to concentrate on my Blog and website. I’ve always enjoyed writing and have neglected it for several years.

The other is the Science Writers and Communicators of Canada conference that is taking plays from May 23rd to 25th here in Winnipeg If you have not heard about it or registered for the event, I encourage you to take a look at their offerings (https://sciencewriters.ca/2019program).

I am very much looking forward it – both to meet fellow science communicators, but also to get a fresh view of the current world of science communication.

Beyond that, I am seeing what topics in STEAM I may want to branch out into. The idea of going back to university and getting that math degree I never pursued pops up now and again, but so does the idea of going rogue, as my partner calls it, and trying to carve out a digital piece of the pie with YouTube and blogging. For the moment, however, it is time for a cup of tea.

– KMSB

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An Evening With Friends and the Perseids

It has been a while since I have taken out my camera to do some astrophotography. In fact, I think the last time I did any was during the solar eclipse last summer.

Thankfully, I have good friends who like evening skies as much as I do and they made plans to head out and watch the Perseids–of course, they invited me along.

It was a great night full that started off with all of us muttering to ourselves trying to remember how to set up the right functions on our cameras to take shots for the evening.

After about ten minutes we were all set up and soon sitting back in our lawn chairs looking skywards. The evening did not disappoint. Between Mason jar cake, homemade mint tea cocoa and conversations that took us from catching up to discussing the hermit kingdom, we saw many bright, brief, and beautiful meteors.

Unfortunately, my camera didn’t catch any of them in the 120 pictures I took, but I was able to stack the images into a nice Morse code star trail image. Two of my friends lucked and caught a meteor in at least one of their images.

All this means that we will just have to head out again for the next big meteor shower.

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Failure is a Learning Option

When I was shopping around for my 3D printer, I made sure to do a little research. There is lots of excellent advice to be found in blogs and forums. I felt confident that if I followed a checklist that I would be up and printing in no time, worry and hassle-free.

  1. Do you want to print right out of the box?
    • Why yes I do! But ready to go printers are expensive …
  2. If you are getting a DIY kit, do you have experience with building and construction of mechanical parts?
    • No, but I did build an IKEA bookshelf once …
  3. If you are getting a DIY kit, do you have experience with programming an Arduino?
    • Oh! I can get the LED on my Arduino to blink with the supplied test code! So … that counts.
  4. Should you get an XY printer or a delta printer? Delta printers are harder to calibrate, so it is suggested that if it is your first printer and if you have little experience with 3D printing to start with an XY printer. You also lose build space on a delta printer.
    • Hmm… yeah, but the deltas look so much cooler.

In the end, I ignored all the advice and bought myself the FLSun Delta printer with heat bed and auto calibration. Only one of these has proven to be useful, the other led to … well, I won’t say frustration instead, I’ll say failures. Lots and lots of failures, but they began well before I  needed to calibrate my printer.

My 3D printer once I finally got it all put together.

I had done some research on the FLSun delta specifically and ran across a post that boasted that reviewer had their dad assemble the printer. As a gentleman who had not assembled a printer before it took him a few hours. Me? A couple of days. It was a comedy of errors as I put pieces in the wrong way, used the wrong screws and constantly fought with the little hex keys they supplied at weird angles. On the upside, I giggled joyfully every time I read, “install the other tow in the same way,” or, “fix screws firmly.”

With every setback, I began to understand the framework and geometry of my printer better. I also discovered that you can by hex keys with a rounded end, designed specifically for getting into those odd angles and corners that a “comes with the kit” key cannot do. Bonus, I’ve expanded my knowledge of tools. I couldn’t wait to impress my brothers at the next family dinner (turns out they knew of their existence, sigh).

After I built my printer I followed the instructions on installing the software and calibration. Once done, I made a print. It didn’t work out so I did another calibration. Things still weren’t printing right. So calibrated again … and then again. I started throwing in some random manual calibrations to see if that helped. In the end, I made so many changes that the printer could no longer even perform an attempt at an auto calibration.

My first series of prints. There were supposed to be cubes, they ended up as rectangular prisms.

I was back doing more research and learned how to calibrate my printer by hand. When I finished the calibration, which took a while given how out of whack I had adjusted my printer, I ran an auto calibrate just to see. It agreed with my adjustments and had no corrections to offer. I felt pretty darn proud.

At any of the failures I faced along the way, I could have given up and walked away. Instead, I sighed, took a sip of tea, or maybe I took a break, but I always tried to apply my what I learned in math to the situation – This answer is wrong. That’s okay. What Can I learn from this mistake? Where might I have missed a step? What variables can I change? Are things defined correctly? Can I redefine them? Is there a tool in my math kit that can help me here?

It sure has come in handy and will continue to come help as I know try to figure out how to print with ABS, let’s just say it’s off to a rocky start!

I was hoping to print some vibration absorption supports, I ended up with a mess.
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Book Review: 50 Things to See with a Telescope – Kids

Cover page of 50 Things to See With a Telescope - Kids

I was fortunate enough to get a copy of John’s book from him when we met at this past total solar eclipse. As a science communicator at the Manitoba Museum’s planetarium, I am always on the hunt for good astronomy books, especially ones that are accessible to a younger audience.

John Read’s “50 Things to See with a Telescope Kids” turned out to be one of those rare books. Not only did it teach and remind me a few things I didn’t know or had forgotten, but it was also a light read with spot on and fun visuals making it great for a reading session with your kid.

The book is a good introduction on what to expect from the hobby of amateur astronomy and gives good tips on how to enjoy your night beneath the stars. The first thing I really like in John’s book, compared to some I have read, is that he is up front and honest about the fact that it takes time, patience and practice to find objects in the night time sky.

His reminders about the challenges of telescope use, especially around more difficult objects to find, is so important to keep in mind, otherwise you and your child will get discouraged. I remember taking four evenings just trying to find The Great Globular Cluster in Hercules (Target 37 in the book) when I was just starting out. Despite the frustrations, I kept at it. The sight was worth it.

This leads me to the second thing I really appreciate about 50 Things to See with a Telescope; John has included images of all the objects in his book as seen through a small telescope. It may seem obvious, but what you will see through the eyepiece of your telescope (or for some targets through your binoculars) will be very different from the images and views of the Hubble Space Telescope, whose images now colour our expectations of space.

The images are also incredibly useful as guides for what you should be looking for. Have you ever tried to find a blue cup in a friend’s cupboards when there are six different blue cups mixed in with a dozen other coloured cups? Well hunting for objects in the sky can be a little like that If you’ve never seen the objects before, these little beautiful images are sure to help you out.

I really appreciate that John included at least one binocular target for each season. This gives kids and parents alike a chance to try out some of the targets with a pair of good binoculars that they may already have at home and see if this is a hobby they want to explore deeper before going out and buying a small telescope.

There were a couple formatting issues where an image would cover the text a little, and some terminology and phrasing that I would perhaps have avoided in my personal style of writing, but none of this takes away from the enjoyment and usefulness of the book.

50 Things to See with a Telescope Kids is an excellent first book or addition to any kid amateur astronomer’s bookshelf – even for those of us who are still just kids at heart.

P.S. I wrote to John Read about the formatting issues and and he informed me that the issues have been addressed in the latest publications of his book.

-KMSB

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Reflections on the Total Eclipse of the Sun

I am hoping to capture some of the mystery and excitement from my girlfriend’s and my journey to Grand Island, Nebraska, to see the total solar eclipse. When we arrived on Sunday afternoon, the campsite was abuzz, not with the talk of the eclipse, but of old friends reuniting and introductions being made to individuals who would become new friends.

Later that evening, after getting settled into our campsite, the talk turned to the weather. We were getting updates and advice from Jan Anderson, who was elsewhere along the path of totality. Regrettably, we were looking at cloud cover for our campsite. Two plans were formed; one, to get up early and drive west as far as you could go past Alliance. The other, to only go a few hours east and hope for what my new friends called a sucker hole.

It was so energetic watching experienced amateur astronomers looking at all the weather models and discussing where the models did or did not overlap.

At first, my girlfriend and I were going to join the crew going west, but we decided to stay and be with friends. It was a good choice, because the next morning, after the models came out, we were forecast to have clear skies with scattered clouds. We had a lazy breakfast, then set up our cameras and telescopes with some friends from the Halifax R.A.S.C. We got all set up just as first contact arrived; the slightest piece of the Sun disappeared behind the tiniest hump of the Moon while looking through my hydrogen-alpha telescope. I chose to take pictures through my telescope, while my girlfriend used her zoom lens equipped with a white light solar filter.

About ten minutes in, after first contact, a bank of clouds started to roll in. Some of the camp was willing to wait and hope for a sucker hole, while others wanted to chase clear skies further west. My girlfriend and I packed up our gear, jumped in her car and followed her Halifax R.A.S.C. friends west on the interstate. We did our best to keep up with them, but their 85 M/Hr down the interstate was hard to keep up within the 75 M/Hr zones. Twice State Troopers puller over either the car ahead or behind of us. Not wanting to risk having a lecture from law enforcement while totality happened, we kept to the speed limits.

The Halifax crew never got pulled over, but we also did not see them again until we met up at the campsite after the eclipse. We did find a nice mile road just south of Highway 2, right on the centre line of totality. We had just enough time to set up our cameras and my telescope and to watch the last limb of the Sun disappear behind the Moon.

Within seconds of the Sun’s edge disappearing, I took off my eclipse glasses to catch a flash of light as the Sun disappeared from the sky. As the already darkening corn fields fell into the night of the Moon’s shadow, the Sun’s corona came into view as if it had always been in the sky and I was just too busy with my life to have noticed. I let out a gasp that encouraged my girlfriend to remove her eclipse glasses and look skyward.

I do not think my description could ever do it justice, nor can ay picture or painting truly capture its magnificence or awe. Even the image in my mind’s eye pales to the real sight.

The sky was dark with only the gentle glow of a few of the brighter stars and some planets to break up its hue. The corona surrounded a hole where the Sun was supposed to be. Like glass threads, the corona poured down and upwards from this hole in the sky. They did not move and were in sharp crystal like focus. Then they would move without moving, without blur. You would simply accept that they had always been in the new spot. The threads above were asymmetrical to the threads below, like the asymmetry in the face of a lover.

I took it in for a good minute before I, regrettably, decided to try and take a picture. I should have left it alone, as none of the pictures I took had any grandeur to them. I am still happy with them but should have just enjoyed the moment more. I did put my camera away after a few photos and took in the last few seconds of the eclipse. Suddenly a bright flash appeared on the outer edge of the Sun, the so-called diamond ring. I quickly put my eclipse glasses back on – totality was over.

It was only as the darkness slowly burnt off like a fog that I noticed the everything had become colder, that the birdsong had stopped, and that the ever-present song of crickets had grown louder in the shadow of the Moon. In all the experience has changed my life, but do not ask me how just yet. I am still trying to take it all in, still trying to process this wonder that is beautifully worked into the mathematical relationships of the disk size of the Moon with its distance from us in relation to the distance and disk size of the Sun: four hundred times smaller, four hundred times closer.

I am grateful for the clear skies we did get, even the campsite got it sucker hole! I am happy to have shared it with my girlfriend, to have heard the “Ohs,” and “Ahs.’ from the people on the other side of our cornfield, and thankful to possess a self-aware consciousness, granted by God or other means, to truly take in this spectacle, this wonder, this cosmic gem, this gravitationally regulated clockwork of Earth, Moon and Sun.

-KMSB

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